|Titre :||How effective is protected area designation for the conservation and restoration of freshwater biodiversity? A systematic evidence review.|
|Auteurs :||Mike Acreman, Auteur ; Manuel Angel Duenas-Lopez, Auteur|
|Type de document :||Rapport|
|Editeur :||[S.l.] : WWF-UK, 2019|
|Mots-clés :||Milieu dulçaquicole ; Zone humide ; Biodiversité ; Espace protégé ; Milieu saumâtre ; Restauration environnement ; Conservation nature|
There is a wide consensus that freshwater biodiversity is continuing to decline rapidly at the global scale, with populations of freshwater species estimated to have declined by 83% since 1970.
WWF-UK set-up a quick scoping review (QSR) to provide an informed conclusion on the volume and characteristics of an evidence base and a synthesis of what that evidence indicates in relation to the specific question “How does freshwater biodiversity and habitat change with protected area designation, design and management?”.
Key information was captured for each study from the selected publications and input to a searchable database.
The majority of studies compared protected with un-protected areas, with only a few comparing the same area before and after designation.
Of the 75 case studies, 39 reported positive outcomes, 25 were neutral and 11 were negative, so 52% of the studies showed protected areas to be effective in protecting freshwater biodiversity. Few studies recorded reasons why the protected area had been successful.
Detailed analysis of the effectiveness categories did not highlight strong relationships with other information, such as taxa, basis of inference, IUCN protected area category or freshwater ecoregion. However, 73% of the case studies in tropical and subtropical coastal rivers show positive outcomes for protected areas, which exceeds the 52% overall figure. Negative changes in protected area fish biodiversity were recorded only in studies of rivers (i.e. there were none for lakes, ponds, wetlands or floodplains). The main causes were invasive species, variations in natural environmental variables (such as water pH and temperature) and local disturbances from dredging, mining and deforestation.
Several studies, including fish in Thai wetlands and birds on Finnish islands, reported that biodiversity increased with greater protected area size.
Conserving aquatic habitat, including the hydrological regime (surface and groundwater), water quality, and riparian terrestrial vegetation, was found to be vital for supporting freshwater biodiversity worldwide.
|En ligne :||https://www.wwf.org.uk/sites/default/files/2019-02/QSR%20Protected%20Areas%20and%20Freshwater%20Biodiversity%20Final%20Report%2020%20February%202019.pdf|